The basic process heats silica and coke in a submerged electric arc furnace to high temperatures. High temperatures are required to produce a reaction where the oxygen is removed, leaving behind silicon. This is known as a reduction process. In this process, metal carbides usually form first at the lower temperatures. As silicon is formed, it displaces the carbon. Refining processes are used to improve purity.
|Melting Point ℃||1414|
|Boiling Point ℃||3265|
|Mohs Hardness @ 20 ℃||7.0|
|Elec Conductance Microhm-1||0.10|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centred Diamond Cubic|
|Appearance||Crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces|